4th Multiphase Flow Journeys

Prof. Gioia Falcone, Cranfield University (UK)

Keynote Title:  “Appreciating synergies and differences between multiphase flow processes in the Petroleum and Geothermal disciplines”

Presentation Schedule: March 29th (Wednesday), 10:10-11:10

Prof. Gioia Falcone, Cranfield University (UK)

Dr. Falcone is currently Professor and Head of the Oil and Gas Engineering Centre at Cranfield University (UK). She previously held the Endowed Chair and Professorship in Geothermal Energy Systems at Clausthal University of Technology (Germany), where she was also the Director of the Institute of Petroleum Engineering. She was formerly an assistant and then associate professor in petroleum engineering at Texas A&M University (U.S.A.), Chevron Corporation Faculty Fellow and faculty member of the ODASES partnership.

Dr. Falcone holds a Laurea Summa Cum Laude in environmental-petroleum engineering from the University Sapienza of Rome, a M.Sc. degree in petroleum engineering from Imperial College London and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Imperial College London. Prior to joining academia, she worked with ENI-Agip, Enterprise Oil UK, Shell E&P UK and TOTAL E&P UK, covering both offshore and onshore assignments.

Along with being actively engaged with the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), she is one of the 21 members of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Bureau of the Expert Group on Resource Classification, and of its Renewable Reserves Taskforce. She is also the appointed Leader of the International Geothermal Association (IGA)/UNECE working group for the development of geothermal specifications for the UNFC-2009.

Dr. Falcone has served on several expert review panels, as technical editor/reviewer for several peer-review journals, and as member of several program committees of technical conferences around the world. She was the recipient of the SPE Young Professional Paper Certificate at the 2008 and 2009 SPE ATCE Conferences in recognition of her paper contributions to the technical discipline of projects, facilities, and construction. She has co-authored over a hundred scholarly articles and one US patent, edited the 2012 Multiphase Flow Metering SPE Reprint Series “Getting up to Speed” and co-authored the 2009 book on Multiphase Flow Metering, published by Elsevier.

Appreciating synergies and differences between multiphase flow processes in the Petroleum and Geothermaldisciplines

Renewable energy is seen as the future source to meet the world’s growing demand, with geothermal resources offering a constant and independent supply.

Over the past century, the oil and gas sector has developed high level technologies for the exploitation of hydrocarbon reservoirs and muchof this expertise is directly transferrable to geothermal exploitation. Equally, the latter is fully established with the first geothermal electric power plant using steam to generate power conceived in Italy in 1904.

This presentation introduces the complimentary aspects of geothermal exploitation and the oil and gas expertise where multiphase flow is concerned, such as the characterisation of fluid flow through underground formations and in wellbores.

The discussion continues with a look at the challenges posed by the need to simulate non-isothermal, multiphase, and multi-component flows in both the wellbore and in the formation in most geothermal applications. To this aim, examples of complex multiphase geothermal processes will be given.

The requirement to model coupled reservoir-wellbore flow will be stressed, taking into account the difference in temporal and spatial scales between the two domains. The example of linking well dynamics with the intermittent response of a reservoir, that is typical of liquid loading in gas wells, will be presented, together with closed-loop heat exchangers and downhole boilers for geothermal energy production.

The presentation will offer an appreciation of the synergies and differences between multiphase flow processes in the Petroleum and Geothermal disciplines.

Prof. Yassin Hassan, Texas A&M University (USA)

Keynote Title: “Advanced measurements with high accuracy and high resolution data for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics”

Presentation Schedule: March 29th (Wednesday), 14:30-15:30

Prof. Yassin Hassan, Texas A&M University (USA)

Dr. Yassin Hassan is Sallie & Don Davis ’61 Professor in Nuclear Engineering at Texas A&M University, and the Head of the Department of Nuclear Engineering. His research interests are thermal-hydraulics, computational and experimental fluid mechanics and heat transfer, turbulence, two-phase flow, reactor safety, laser-based flow visualization and diagnostic imaging techniques, system modeling and advanced nuclear reactors. Prior to joining Texas A&M September 1986, he worked for seven years at Babcock & Wilcox Company, where he conducted several thermal hydraulic analyses and undertook development of several computational techniques.

He has over 140 refereed journal publications and over 270 refereed papers in conference proceedings. He holds BS in Engineering from University of Alexandria, MS degree in Nuclear Engineering from University of Illinois, MS degree in Mechanical Engineering from University of Virginia and Ph.D. degree in Nuclear Engineering from University of Illinois.

He is a fellow of American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), a fellow of American Nuclear Society (ANS) and a fellow of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), and awarded 2008 American Nuclear Society Seaborg Medal (this award recognizes an individual who has made outstanding scientific or engineering research contributions to the development of uses of nuclear energy), 2003 George Westinghouse Gold Medal award (distinguished achievement in and notable achievements in power field of mechanical engineering), 2004 Thermal Hydraulics Technical Achievement award (highest award given by Thermal Hydraulic Division of ANS in recognition of outstanding technical achievement), 2003 Arthur Holly Compton Award of the American Nuclear Society in recognition of contributions to nuclear engineering education and research and 2001 Glenn Murphy award of the American Association for Engineering Education. He is the editor-in-chief of the premier Nuclear Engineering and Design Journal.

Advanced measurements with high accuracy and high resolution data for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics

Several novel experimental techniques aimed at providing experimental databases with high quality, high spatial and temporal resolutions will be presented. The obtained high fidelity experimental databases are used to support the validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics codes that are employed in several applications. Our developed measurement techniques have been successfully applied to single and multiphase flows in several types of experiments.

In this presentation, single-phase and two-phase flow experiments will be discussed.   Single phase experiments in rod bundles and pebble-bed columns, mixing of twin/multi-jets will presented. Refractive Index Matching (RIM) approach is employed to allow transparency for flow visualization in complex geometries. The RIM experimental facilities then allowed us to perform various visualization techniques such as Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV), stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to obtain flow characteristics especially in the regions that are visually blocked by the rods and pebble-bed fuel. Moreover, when employed high repetition lasers (≈ 10 kHz) in combination with high speed cameras to obtain experimental images, we achieved turbulent flow statistics such as mean velocity fields, Reynolds stresses components to provide high quality validation data with high spatial-temporal resolutions for CFD calculations. In addition to the visualization techniques, we applied fast pressure transducers at several spatial locations to measure the high frequency pressure responses. In multi-phase flow experiments, for example a sub-cooled boiling channel, the implementation of the high speed PTV/PIV systems in combination with high speed shadowgraphy (HSS) allowed us to investigate turbulent flow characteristics near the nucleation sites.  These novel experimental techniques can simultaneously capture the behaviors of the liquid and gas phases, and their mutual interactions. The high speed PTV/PIV techniques provided high quality, high resolution of liquid velocity fields, turbulent flow characteristics surrounding the bubbles, the HSS technique can measure characteristics of gas bubbles and other important bubble dynamics parameters, such as diameter, velocities, release frequency, growth rate, coalescence rate, etc. Contributions of these parameters between the liquid and gas phases are investigated. The obtained experimental databases provide important validation benchmark for CFD calculations in two-phase flows.

Furthermore, we have been successfully employed other measurement techniques, such as Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF), Ultrasonic Doppler Velocimetry (UDV), Oxygen Sensors to several experimental facilities, for example vertical turbulent buoyant dual jets, simplified models of reactor buildings. While the UDV technique can measure the velocity fields regardless the opaque materials, the LIF technique and Oxygen Sensors provide us the measurements of temperature and/or concentrations in flows with different liquids or gases, such as hot and cold water, variable-density fluids, helium and air, etc.

In conclusion, high fidelity experimental approaches to support CFD model validations are presented. These data can be utilized in validation and development of turbulence models such as Reynolds-Average Navier Stokes (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES).

Prof. José Roberto Zenit Camacho, UNAM (México)

Keynote Title: “Bubbly flows: from Newtonian to non Newtonian behavior”

Presentation Schedule: March 30th (Thursday), 08:30-09:30

Prof. José Roberto Zenit Camacho, UNAM (México)

Dr. José Roberto Zenit Camacho is Full Professor at Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). His research interests are fluid mechanics (two-phase flows, granular flows, biological flows), rheology and heat transfer. Prior to joining UNAM in 1999, he held post-doc positions at California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and Cornell University.

He has over 80 refereed journal publications and over 60 refereed papers in conferences. He holds BS in Electrical and Mechanical Engineering from UNAM and MS and PhD degrees in Mechanical Engineering from Caltech.

He is a member of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), American Institute of Chemical Engineers and American Physical Society. He is the recipient of 1998 Caltech Richard Bruce Chapman Memorial Award, assigned for “distinguished research in hydrodynamics”.

Bubbly flows: from Newtonian to non Newtonian behavior

Bubbly flows, liquid-gas flows in which the gas phase is dispersed into single bubbles, are commonly observed in many natural and industrial processes. When the surrounding liquid is Newtonian, bubbles disperse and rise causing a characteristic agitated state. It is possible to predict, with some confidence, how bubbles produce or modify turbulent-like velocity fluctuations. However, for many relevant modern industrial applications the liquid phase is no longer Newtonian. The understanding of such two-phase flows is rather poor, resulting from the inherent complexity of dealing with fluids that may exhibit shear-dependent viscosity and viscoelasticity. Intuition is, essentially, gone. In this presentation, a summary of the current understanding of Newtonian bubbly liquids will be presented. Then, our recent efforts to gain fundamental understanding of hydrodynamic interactions in non-Newtonian liquids will be discussed, starting from single bubble motion, bubble-pair interactions and finally bubbly flows. Some particular areas in which more understanding is needed are identified and discussed.

Prof. Cem Sarica, The University of Tulsa (USA)

Keynote Title: “Similarities and differences of two-phase flow between horizontal and conventional wells”

Presentation Schedule: March 30th (Thursday), 14:30-15:30

Prof. Cem Sarica, The University of Tulsa (USA)

Dr. Cem Sarica is F.H. “Mick” Merelli/Cimarex Energy Professor of Petroleum Engineering at the University of Tulsa (TU), and the director of three industry supported consortia at the TU: Fluid Flow, Paraffin Deposition, and Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects. His research interests are production engineering, multiphase flow in pipes, flow assurance and horizontal wells.

He has over 150 publications. He holds BS and MS degrees in petroleum engineering from Istanbul Technical University and Ph.D. degree in petroleum engineering from TU. He is a member of Technical Advisory Committee of British Hydrodynamics Research Group (BHRg) Multiphase Production Conferences. He was the Technical Program Chair of BHRg 2008 and 2012 Conferences. He currently serves as a member of SPE Projects, Facilities and Construction Advisory Committee, and a board member of Flow Assurance Section of SPE. He has previously served in several SPE committees and on editorial boards of SPEJ and JERT of ASME. He is the recipient of 2010 SPE International Production and Operations Award. He is recognized as a Distinguished Member of SPE in 2012. He is 2015 recipient of the SPE John Franklin Carll Award. He is also one of the 2015 recipients of the SPE Cedric K. Ferguson Certificate.

Similarities and differences of two-phase flow between horizontal and conventional wells

Multiphase flow in oil and gas production is a common occurrence.  Until mid 1980’s, most oil and gas producing wells are drilled either vertically or with some deviation from vertical.  Naturally, multiphase flow research for wells focused on vertical and deviated wells (conventional wells).  Several multiphase correlations and mechanistic models have been developed for conventional wells.  After mid 1980’s, with the advancements in horizontal drilling, a significant amount of wells have been horizontal wells.  Horizontal wells were initially drilled into conventional reservoirs with relatively high permeability (sandstones, carbonates, etc.) and pressure losses in the horizontal section were not significant enough compared to the vertical portion of the wells.  Therefore, they could not receive much attention with respect to multiphase flow behavior, although some limited studies such were conducted.  These studies were simply application of the existing horizontal and slightly inclined two-phase flow models to horizontal sections with no consideration of the interaction between the horizontal and vertical sections of the well.

With the advancements in hydraulic fracturing technology in horizontal wells, production from shale oil and gas plays has been a reality, especially in USA.  Characteristically, oil and gas production from these wells decline rapidly and wells operate with low gas and liquid flow rates for the most of their life.  The flow in these wells then become susceptible to their lateral trajectories; toe-down, toe-up, undulating.  Although these trajectories present significant resemblance to hilly terrain pipelines, the flow behavior may present significant differences primarily due to interaction between the vertical and the lateral sections of the well.

In this talk, the results of the recent experimental studies conducted at the University of Tulsa will be presented and discussed.  The results are obtained using small (2 in. ID) and large (6 in. ID) facilities for lateral section geometries of toe-up, toe-down and undulations.  General observation of the flow, the interaction between the vertical and lateral sections, and the impact of the end of tubing location with and without packer will be given.  Performance evaluation of currently available multiphase flow models will also be presented.

Although there are similarities between the two-phase flows of conventional and horizontal wells, the experimental results indicate unique two-phase flow behavior for horizontal wells and significant interaction between the vertical and lateral sections of the horizontal well.  Therefore, simulators based on the integration of steady-state point models, which assume no interaction between the different sections of the horizontal well, cannot be expected to give satisfactory results unless proper modifications are made.

Prof. Gherhardt Ribatski, University of São Paulo (Brazil)

Keynote Title: “The effects of refrigerant type and channel dimension and geometry on flow boiling in micro-scale channels (single-channels and microchannels array heat sink)”

Presentation Schedule: March 31st (Friday), 08:30-09:30

Prof. Gherhardt Ribatski, University of São Paulo (Brazil)

D. Ribatski is currently Associate Professor and Coordinator of Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program at São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo (USP), Brazil. He received his BS, MS and Doctoral degrees in Mechanical Engineering from the University of São Paulo. He held postdoctoral positions at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) and Universidade da Coruña.

His research interests cover nanofluids, pool boiling, falling-film evaporation and condensation, two-phase flow, flow induced vibration, flow boiling and condensation for external and internal flows, heat transfer enhancement, heat exchangers, phase-change in microchannels and solar energy.

He is Associate Editor of the Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science and member of the Editorial board of International Journal of Multiphase Flow and International Journal of Microscale and Nanoscale Thermal and Fluid Transport. He is member and secretary-director of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering. He is member of Assembly of World Conferences on Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Virtual Institute of Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer, Scientific Council of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer (ICHMT), and corresponding member of The ICeM NEWSLETTER / The Japanese Society for Multiphase Flow.

The Heat Transfer and Micro-fluidics Laboratory at EESC-USP, under guidance of Prof. Ribatski, is recognized worldwide as one of leading groups in Brazil performing studies on two-phase flow and flow boiling. Recently, a doctorate thesis developed under his guidance was awarded by USP as the best Doctoral thesis in the Engineering field and by CAPES as the best 2012 Doctoral thesis in the field of Mechanical, Naval and Aeronautical Engineering. He was the Chair of the COBEM-2013 and is the co-chair of 9th World Conferences on Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics to be held at Iguazu Falls, 2017.

He has presented 7 keynote lectures and taken part in the scientific committee of several International Conferences. Dr. Ribatski has over 60 refereed journal publications, 4 book chapters, and over 80 refereed papers in conferences.

The effects of refrigerant type and channel dimension and geometry on flow boiling in micro-scale channels (single-channels and microchannels array heat sink)

Over the last two decades, flow boiling in microchannels has being one of the leading research topics in the field of heat transfer due to the actual demand of dissipating extremely high heat flux rates. microchannels array heat sink (MAHS) presents advantages over the competing technologies such as reduced refrigerant inventory, compactness, quasi-isotherm heat transfer process, heat transfer coefficient enhancement and allows high operational pressures. These characteristics are responsible for the following benefits: (i) improvement of the thermal-hydraulic efficiency of the cooling system; (ii) suitability of the system to conditions with restrictions to toxic and flammable fluids, allowing the use of refrigerants with low cost and negligible Global Warming Potential (GWP)  and Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP); (iii) minimization of the environmental impact through the reduction of refrigerant contained in the system and the material used for its manufacture; (iv) possibility of high heat dissipation under extremely confined conditions. In this context, despite of the recognition of the advantages of implementing flow boiling in MAHS for thermal-management of electronic devices, the fluid refrigerant to be used, channel geometry and its optimum diameter are still open issues.

In this presentation, results for heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop during flow boiling of HFCs (R134a, R245fa, R407c) HFOs (R1234yf, R1234ze), hydrocarbons, water and nanofluids are presented and discussed. Data for single and MAHS configurations are compared and their peculiarities identified.  Special attention is given to the thermal instability effects and its attenuation. The effect of channel equivalent diameter (0.38 to 2.6mm) and geometry (circular, square and triangular) on the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop is also discussed having as main focus to identify the channel characteristic dimension to be considered in predictive methods. Comparisons of predictive methods from literature and the experimental data are also presented. Finally, a map road for the design and development of MAHS is given and the recent predictive methods for void fraction, frictional pressure drop, heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux proposed by the Heat Transfer and Microfluidics Research Group at EESC-USP are presented.